Alfred schutz stranger essay

What is of interest to Schutz is the stranger's integration and assimilation into society. Schutz is referring to all types of such integration into a new group like moving to a new city or joining an exclusive group. In order to understand Schutz's understanding of the stranger we must first describe how he considers regular members of groups. According to Schutz the member of a group is situated within it and therefore has a set of layers of information which are not completely coherent, are only partially clear and non consecutive.

Alfred schutz stranger essay

Life and Influence Vienna-born Alfred Schutz — joined the artillery division of the Austrian army during World War I and served on the Italian front before returning to pursue studies at the University of Vienna.

In the interdisciplinary Mises Circle, Schutz formed friendships that would continue throughout the cataclysmic decades of the s and s and that included, among others, economists Gottfried von Haberler, Friedrich A. Dissatisfied, though, with his analyses of temporality to the extent that he never published them Alfred schutz stranger essay prompted by comments of Felix Kaufmann, he discovered the relevance of the phenomenology of the consciousness of inner time of Edmund Husserl — Also, before any direct encounter with American pragmatism, he developed a manuscript on personality in the social world that stressed the pragmatic elements of the everyday social world.

As an international lawyer and businessperson, he was able to assist numerous intellectuals to escape Austria, but the westward movement of the Nazi juggernaut eventually compelled him to immigrate with his family to the United States on July 14, In the United States, he continued assisting immigrants and working with Reitler and Company in reestablishing its business, and he supported the United States war effort by reporting on German and Austrian economic matters for the Board of Economic Warfare.

He also cooperated with Marvin Farber in founding the International Phenomenological Society, whose initial turf-battles he often mediated, and in instituting and editing Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. InSchutz began teaching sociology and philosophy courses on The Graduate Faculty of The New School for Social Alfred schutz stranger essay, and his reponsibilities included presenting papers in the school-wide General Seminar, supervising dissertations, and serving as chair of the Philosophy Department from — In spite of his many activities, he managed to carry on an extensive philosophical correspondence with Farber, Aron Gurwitsch, Fritz Machlup, Eric Voegelin, and Maurice Natanson, his graduate student from to However, to date, only the correspondence with Gurwitsch has been published as Philosophers in Exile: The Phenomenology of the Social World In his principal work, Schutz placed three chapters of philosophical discussion between introductory and concluding chapters that discussed the social scientific positions his philosophy attempted to engage.

Schutz had appropriated this notion of flowing consciousness, or duration, from Bergson, on whom he had relied in the manuscripts later published as Life Forms and Meaning Structure.

Alfred schutz stranger essay

As a result of this methodology relying on distinct ideal-types, duration began to appear as an inaccessible Ding-an-sich.

Schutz, though, turned the Husserlian account of temporality in the direction of an action theory, demarcating levels of passive experience e.

Strawson and Thomas Nagel, who distinguish between the participant and observer attitudes prior to theoretical discussions and who align the participant attitude with freedom and the observer attitude with determinism.

Schutz, however, contributes the unique insight that these attitudes take place within distinctive temporal frameworks, oriented toward the future or the past. Likewise, one can interpret an economic action after the fact as less than rational without taking sufficient account of the limited information that was available to the actor at the time of deciding to act and that might make her action seem perfectly rational.

As a consequence, the objective meanings of language, defined in dictionaries as invariant regardless of users, also bear subjective connotations for language users due to their unique histories of linguistic experience, even though for practical purposes of communication they are able to set aside such differences.

Human actors in everyday life already adopt toward each other the attitudes of social scientists. According to him, social scientists develop constructs, ideal types, of the meaning-contexts of life-world actors, and they test these types to determine if they are causally adequate, that is conforming to past experience, and meaning adequate, that is, consistent with whatever else is known about the actor.

Of course, by moving in this direction, he encountered the problem, faced by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Wilfrid Sellars, John McDowell, Robert Brandom, and others, namely, how it is possible to access the pre-conceptual without conceptualizing it.

This problem parallels the problem of reaching the life-form of the present unfolding of experience duration since one can only speak of it by arresting its flow, distinguishing its moments, and thus remembering what has lapsed—but then one is in the new life-form of memory.

Although this gap between present duration and memory prompted his turn to Husserlian phenomenology, the problematic itself highlighted for him the pervasiveness and hiddenness of interpretive activity as one moves between interpretive frameworks—a principal theme of all his later work.

Since Mises considered all acting economic insofar as any consumer choice involved maximizing satisfaction in the widest sense, he opposed the narrow type of the homo economicus, modeled on the businessperson driven solely by economic motives at the expense of all others.

Schutz, however, posited the life-world with its wide diversity of motivations at the base of economic theory. In addition, he classified the sense of uneasiness that Mises described as prompting the search for satisfaction under the category of because motives; one first adopts an rationally determined economic project and in retrospect discovers the preceding dissatisfaction.


To understand the difference between conceiving all action as economic and conceiving economic action as one type of action within an more encompassing life-world, one might compare Mises with Schutz with reference to a problem raised within contemporary discussions of collective action, namely, how traditional non-economic values e.

Mises would countenance economic agents registering their values economically, that is, by deciding to purchase or not e. The problem was, though, that the natural scientific approach to the social sciences, insofar as it separated verifiable observable behavior from unverifiable inner states purposes, emotionsseemed to play on the map drawn by Descartes who divorced body from mind and allowed only statements about the former to be scientifically verifiable.

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Given this account of social reality, in which actors give meaning to their world, as opposed to physical reality whose objects e. To ensure the kind of validation that Nagel sought, mistakenly though, by restricting himself to sensory observable data, Schutz proposed that social scientists displace their everyday practical interests in favor of a guiding interest in accurate scientific description and observe postulates of logical consistency and adequacy to the experiences described.

The Stranger, an Essay in Social Psychology. Alfred Schutz. C.I.R.C., - Interpersonal relations - 16 pages. 0 Reviews. What people are saying - Write a review. We haven't found any reviews in the usual places. References to this book. Sensemaking in Organizations. JOHN R. HALL ALFRED SCHUTZ, HIS CRITICS, AND APPLIED PHENOMENOLOGY Recently Alfred Schutz’s attempt at a phenomenological solution to methodological and conceptual problems in the social sciences has been subjected to careful scrutiny. Mar 12,  · "The Stranger: An Essay in Social Psychology" by Alfred Schutz is a notable sociolical essay that picks up on Georg Simmel's notion of the is of interest to Schutz is the stranger's integration and assimilation into אני.

In order to elucidate the meaning of rational action, Schutz hypothesized what a rational actor would have to know, even though such completely rational actions might never be realized in everyday life. Such an actor would have to know: In addition, the rational actor would need to understand: Although social scientists might use such models of completely rational action to assess the rationality of everyday actors, Schutz cautioned social scientists that if their task were to describe life-world actors, they also needed to be wary of replacing the viewpoint of everyday actors with a fictional, non-existing world constructed by scientific observers.

Finally, it should be noted that Schutz himself produced two pieces of applied research in which he constructed ideal types of the Stranger and the Homecomer, taking account of what their experiences meant to them instead of what social scientists or others might think they meant.

Another American philosopher to whom Schutz dedicated an entire essay was George Santayana, whose Dominations and Powers he reviewed. Besides these interchanges with American philosophers, Schutz later in his career interpreted the work of Max Scheler and earlier engaged thoroughly his treatment of intersubjectivity, a topic that Schutz insisted was to be treated within the natural attitude, in which one never doubted the existence of others.

Nevertheless, as soon as one reflects on his own stream of consciousness—and children and cultures may develop this capacity for self-reflection later—he becomes aware that his experiences are his own. Another figure, more or less within the phenomenological tradition, whose views on intersubjectivity Schutz examined and criticized, was Jean-Paul Sartre, particularly the Sartre of Being and Nothingness.

In manuscripts in the s and after The Phenomenology of the Social World, Schutz had already turned in this pragmatic direction. Each province contains its distinctive logical, temporal, corporal, and social dimensions, and movement between the provinces only becomes paradoxical e.Accordingly, Alfred Schutz’s essay, “The Stranger: An Essay in Social Psychology” (), will be referred to in the following analysis.

This essay was written soon after Schutz had immigrated to the United States and soon afterwards he went on to write “The Homecomer” (), which is similar and. JOHN R. HALL ALFRED SCHUTZ, HIS CRITICS, AND APPLIED PHENOMENOLOGY Recently Alfred Schutz’s attempt at a phenomenological solution to methodological and conceptual problems in the social sciences has been subjected to careful scrutiny.

16 Alfred Schutz JOCHEN DREHER The sociologist and philosopher Alfred Schutz is the major representative of a logical circles) article on "The Stranger: An Essay in Social Psychology" (Schutz [] ), published in , phenomenologically characterizes the situation of. The Stranger - Alfred Schutz - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.5/5(2).

The Stranger: An Essay in Social Psychology Created Date: Z. Accordingly, Alfred Schutz’s essay, “The Stranger: An Essay in Social Psychology” (), will be referred to in the following analysis. This essay was written soon after Schutz had immigrated to the United States and soon afterwards he went on to write “The Homecomer” (), which is similar and.

Cultural Reader: Alfred Schutz - The Stranger - Summary