They even received a guarantee that if accused of apostasy they would be subject only to papal authority. But Paul IV —59the voice of the Counter-Reformation, dealt them an irreparable blow when he withdrew all protection previously given the Marranos and initiated a fierce persecution against them. As a result of the anti-Marrano campaign, 25 Judaizers were burned alive in the spring of ; 26 others were condemned to the galleys, and 30 more who had been arrested were liberated only after they had paid a substantial bribe. A document of indicates that there were some Marranos among the Spanish and Portuguese merchants in Florence who traded on a large scale with Spain and her colonies.
Boarding their vessels before midnight, and sailing one-half hour before sunrise, Columbus and his crew set out on his now-famous voyage.
The source of Columbus' motivation was his Biblical view of scientific data as well as spiritual faith in the Scriptures. A Second Homeland Although their immigration into Europe technically started with the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 a.
From about the first century a. Paul even spoke of the need for missionary work among the Jews of Spain. So deeply woven into the fabric of Spain are the Jews that neither history can be fully studied without considering the influence of the other.
Conversos and Marranos The Jews in Spain became the target of pogroms and religious per-secution. Many were forced to renounce Judaism and embrace Catholicism.
These were known as Conversos, or converts. Others, Marranos, feigned conversion, practicing Catholicism outwardly while remaining Jews inwardly.
Marranos has two meanings in Spanish: The introduction of the Inquisition was motivated by the greed of King Ferdinand attempting to seize all the power and wealth in Spain. It was an instrument of avarice and political absolutism.
About of these independent Spains began their Reconquista, War of Reconquest, against their Islamic invaders. The primary source of financing was trade with the Far East.
By the s, the passages to the East were denied to the Christian West by the Muslims who controlled the main overland routes to the Orient. Bandits, desert heat and sand storms, as well as other hazards eventually made Europe's alternate overland routes too dangerous and expensive. A new route, by sea, was the challenge.
By the late 13th century, the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon had reconquered most of the Muslim-controlled territory. The last Muslim kingdom, Granada, was reconquered inwhich seems to have set the stage for the famous voyage.
The Maritime Technology of 15th Century. Contrary to popular belief, most of the educated of 15th century Europe held to the concept of a spherical earth. Hebrew astronomers, like Abraham Zacuto, who the explorer Vasco Da Gama had consulted seeking a sea route to India around Africa, furnished the celestial time tables.
Rabbi Levi ben Gershon, whose mathematical system became the basis for modern trigonometry, had invented a quadrant known as Jacob's Staff. This angle- measuring de-vice was used by Columbus, Da Gama, and Ferdinand Ma-gellan, the first to circumnavigate the earth.
Abraham Ibn Esra, Jacob ben Machir, and Jacob Carsoni developed technical apparatus like the Astrolabe, used to determine the latitude and longitude of a position. Cartography, the art and science of making maps and charts, was also an area of Jewish expertise in Europe.
Astrolabe It was a young mariner and cartographer who was to combine these factors into a radical plan to reach the East by sailing west across the Ocean-Sea: They claim his father, Domenico Colombo, was a tower sentinel in Genoa and later a weaver in Savona.
Other sources present the view that Columbus' family were Spaniards who lived in Italy but later returned to Spain, resuming their original family name of Colon. Fifteenth century Portugal was Europe's dominant sea power, with Lisbon, its ocean-port capital, the center of navigational science and nautical speculation.
Arriving in Lisbon inColumbus engaged in cartography as well as working in his brother's book business. It was from the interchanges with scholars that Columbus crystallized his La Empresa de la Indies, his Enterprise of the Indies.
He felt predestined, chosen for a mission. His name, Christ-Topher "Christ-bearer"he felt was evidence of his destiny.
Columbus was more driven by prophecy than astronomy. In his personal library was the edition of Bibliothecae Historicae, written by Diodorus Siculus, a first century b. Greek historian who spoke of "a very great island many day's sailing from Africa.
Also, a passage by Roger Bacon, "the sea between the end of Spain on the west and the beginning of India on the east is navigable in a very few days if the wind is fav-orable," was cited by Columbus in a letter to Ferdinand and Isabella in as one of the suggestions that had inspired his voyage in InColumbus left Portugal for Spain, and in he gained an audience with Queen Isabella, and built his arguments on evangelistic aspects.
She was so impressed theologically she submitted it to a special commission at the University of Salamanca, but in it was again rejected as the distance being too great.A history of the Marranos, by Cecil Roth; Dramatic episodes of the Portuguese Inquisition, volume 1, by Antonio Baião [in Portuguese] Dramatic episodes of the Portuguese Inquisition, volume 2, by Antonio Baião [in Portuguese] Trial of Gabriel de Granada by the Inquisition in Mexico, – This survey of Jewish history and thought spans biblical times through the twentieth century and the establishment of the State of Israel, covering developments that have shaped Judaism, Jewish learning, Jewish experience, and the Jewish people.
The Nutshell History of Marranos of Portugal By Manuel Azevedo thwarted the introduction of the Inquisition in Portugal until and although the first auto de fe was held in , the Inquisition did not get into full swing until , thus enabling several generations of Marranos to develop a unique secret Portuguese Jewish culture.
Relates the experience of the Portuguese New Christians who from the sixteenth through seventeenth centuries fled the Iberian peninsula and reverted to Judaism. Jewish history in the Middle Ages covers the period from the 5th to the 15th century.
During the course of this period, the Jewish population gradually shifted from the Mediterranean Basin to Eastern Europe.. Jewish tradition traces the origins of Jews to the Israelite tribes of Palestine in the late 2nd -early Ist millennium BCE.
As early as the Babylonian exile Jews, through exile under. History of the Marranos on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.