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The traditional "cross regu- lation" model developed by the Crozier school is wrong to assume culturally grounded stalemate and to suggest that local political power is nothing more than the informal access of local elites to national policymaking.
Analyzing the policy of technopoles or science park development, both nationally and by way of detailed local case studies of Montpellier and Rennes, we demonstrate that, on the contray, French local and regional authorities have risen progressively to independent loci of governmental power and policymaking.
Local policy initiatives are, however, embedded in a multi-level institutional fabric rangingfvom the local to the European level. These developments in zyxwv center-periphery relations need to be placed into the context of the general decline of the traditional French public policy model, which has been stifly challenged by the norms of market, Europe and subsidiarity.
In conclusion, a comparative and interorganizational perspective suggests that France is moving toward a territorial system increasingly characterized by the dynam- ics of intergovernmental conflict and cooperation and best described as "quasi-federalism in unitay disguise.
In this article, it is argued that the sociological model of "cross regula- tion" Crozier and Thoenigwith its emphasis on the conservative character of French institutional arrangements, fails to account for recent transformationsof French center-periphery relations in the aftermath of the decentralization reforms.
The model is right to emphasize the impor- tance of interdependence between central and local actors, cutting across political and administrative branches and territorial levels.
But it is wrong to reduce local political power to the capacity of local elites to influence zyxwvu zyxwvuts informally central policies in a system of generalized responsibility avoid- zy ance.
Today local and regional governments have the authority and suffi- "Universityof Konstanz, Germany Governance: ISSN zyxwvutsrq zyxwvu level funding and support.
Case studies of Montpellier and Rennes illustrate the preconditions for effective local or regional govern- ance in post-decentralist France: In an interorganizationaland comparative perspective, we finally argue that the French system is moving toward federal-stylepatterns of intergov- ernmental bargaining.
Behind the unitary disguise of the indivisible Repub- lic we find quasi-federalist arrangements or networks ranging from the local to the European level. Michel Crozier founded his approach on the idea of a progressive unfolding of centraliza- tion and the notion of uniqueness of French organizational structures.
Disciples of Crozier transferred the notion of informal channels of rela- tions that result from the deficiencies of hierarchical organizations to the analysis of interorganizationalrelationships between central, state and local authorities.
France has long been regarded as a highly centralized unitary state, with central government exercising total control over public affairs. This perspective was reflected in the territorial framework prior tocharacterized by vertical-hierarchical structures severely circumscribing local political power.
The sociological studies by the Centre de Sociologie des Organisations showed that the reality of power distribution in central-local relations was more complex.
All actors are in a system of informal, elitist networks of interest mediation and decision making. Both local and central politico-administrative elites are fundamentally opposed to change and incapable of autonomous initiatives.
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First, centralization continues to lie at the heart of a fundamentally unique and stable system of regulation. Second, the cross regulation model severely circumscribes the governmental role of local decision-makers.
With policy- making monopolized by the central state, the power of local political elites lies in their capacity to influence or adapt central policies. This concept of a limited governmental role for local authorities corre- sponds to the picture of the traditional politico-administrativesystem drawn by Jobert and Muller In the last decade this model of sectoralcorporatismhas progressively eroded.
The centrality of the state in social mediation and public policy has been challenged by both the emergence of the European Union, and the conse- quences of territorial decentralization. These changes favor the emergence of a new r rentiel global and of new operational modes of public policy which zyxwv tend to increase the powers of local authorities Muller The decentralization reforms brought about significant redistribution of powers between Paris and the provinces Gil- bert and Delcamp A priori administrative and financial control over local government was replaced by a posteriori legal control by administra- tive tribunals and new regional courts of accounts.
Regional public estab- lishments were promoted into a new tier of sub-national government with directly-elected councils, and the executive in the diparfernents and regions passed to the chairperson of the local legislative assembly.
New policymak- ing powers and corresponding financial resources were transferred to the tiers of local government. We argue, on the contrary,that local government is characterized by coniiderable transformation, however, not primarily as a result of the Defferre reforms.
The fact that, by decree, "informal rules became formal roles" certainly had to discontinue the system of cross- regulation based on responsibility avoidance and helped to establish a new set of roles, rules and interrelationships in the periphery Schmidt However, the new "pluralism" in local institutions and processes injected by the Defferre reforms could build on pre-existing develop- ments in a changing socio-economicenvironment.
More importantly, this new set of relationships goes well beyond the formalization of informal bargaining rules. The logic of full electoral responsibility at the decentral levels and the interplay of open cooperation and competition between different units and tiers of government encourages local authorities to take policy initiatives and to introduce them into a new, truly intergov- zyxw ernmental arena instead of relying exclusively on individual access to zyxwvut zyxw central policymaking.
Therefore, we can understand the transformation of center-periphery relations as a federal challenge to the unitary charac- ter of the French Republic. We argue that the roughly forty-fiveFrench technopole projects developed since the early s can illustrate with concrete policy analysis, the redefinition and redistribution of the roles and powers of the state and local authorities.
Science Parks and "Technopoles" The term "technopoles"' or science parks is somewhat elusive, reflecting confusion about the substantial "content" of a technopole Merlant and Kerorguen Sous le Haut Patronage de Son Altesse Sérénissime, Le Prince Albert II de Monaco.
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