Dennis gabor development of the theory of holography and its use throughout history

FAQ Holography dates fromwhen British native of Hungary scientist Dennis Gabor developed the theory of holography while working to improve the resolution of an electron microscope.

Dennis gabor development of the theory of holography and its use throughout history

Gabor, who characterized his work as "an experiment in serendipity" that was "begun too soon," coined the term hologram from the Greek words holos, meaning "whole," and gramma, meaning "message.

Among those who made important contributions to the development of the technique were G. In these early years, the mercury arc lamp was the most coherent light source available for making holograms.

Because of the low coherency of this light, it was not possible to produce holograms of any depth, thus restricting research. Most important, they extended their understanding of the process and its potential to another generation of scientists.

His holograms contained distortions and an extraneous twin image. Further development in the field was stymied during the next decade because light sources available at the time were not truly "coherent" monochromatic or one-color, from a single point, and of a single wavelength.

Photo by Paul D. Barefoot This barrier was overcome in with the invention of the laser, whose pure, intense light was ideal for making holograms. For the next ten years, holography techniques and applications mushroomed.

In Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks of the University of Michigan recognized from their work in side-reading radar that holography could be used as a 3-D visual medium.

The result was the first laser transmission hologram of 3-D objects a toy train and bird. These transmission holograms produced images with clarity and realistic depth but required laser light to view the holographic image.

This pioneer image was produced in by Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks at the University of Michigan only four years after the invention of the laser Their pioneering work led to standardization of the equipment used to make holograms.

Today, thousands of laboratories and studios possess the necessary equipment: Stability is absolutely essential because movement as small as a quarter wave- length of light during exposures of a few minutes or even seconds can completely spoil a hologram.

The basic off-axis technique that Leith and Upatnieks developed is still the staple of holographic methodology. Leith and Upatnieks preparing to shoot a laser transmission hologram using the "off-axis" technique borrowed from their work in the development of side-reading radar.

Holography Copying and mass production[ edit ] An existing hologram can be copied by embossing [37] or optically. Embossing, which is similar to the method used to stamp out plastic discs from a master in audio recording, involves copying this surface relief pattern by impressing it onto another material.

Denisyuk of the U. Russian scientist Yuri N. Massey University of Michigan ; G. Labeyrie University of Michigan with K. Lin Bell Labs ; and C. Hartmann Batelle Memorial Institute. By the Fall ofeach group had successfully recorded off-axis reflection holograms within months of each other.

In the pulsed-ruby laser was developed by Dr. Maimam of the Hughes Aircraft Corporation. This laser system unlike the continuous wave laser normally used in holography emits a very powerful burst of light that lasts only a few nanoseconds a billionth of a second.

It effectively freezes movement and makes it possible to produce holograms of high-speed events, such as a bullet in flight, and of living subjects, paving the way for a specialized application of holography: Dennis Gabor, inventor of holography, stands beside his 18"x24" laser transmission, pulsed portrait.

The historic portrait was recorded in by R. In Robert Powell and Karl Stetson published the first paper on holographic interferometry.

Dennis gabor development of the theory of holography and its use throughout history

With this technique, small distortions between two holographic exposures of the same object -- one at rest and the other under stress -- are displayed as contours on the image.

Holographic interferograms are useful in non-destructive testing of materials, fluid flow analysis and quality control. A 5x4" double exposed interferogram of aircraft tires produced by R.

This technique provides a method of non-destructive analysis that determines structural deformations in objects. Two superimposed exposures of a tire at two stages of inflation reveal separations between the four plys of the tire. Grant, GCO International, and Newport Corporation Shankoff and Pennington developed the use of a dichromated gelatin as a holographic recording medium in This made it possible to record a hologram on any clear, non-porous surface.

This type of holography has been best used for high performance diffractive optics. By the late s, holography was still largely confined to the laboratory. Its first tentative steps outside the scientific community took the form of magazine articles and public displays of holograms.

Scientific American and National Geographic carried feature stories. The World Book Encyclopedia Science Yearbook contained what is arguably the first mass-distributed hologram, a 4"x3" transmission view of chess pieces on a board.

An article describing the production of the hologram and basic information about the history of holography accompanied it.Dennis Gabor, inventor of holography, stands beside his 18"x24" laser transmission, pulsed portrait.

The historic portrait was recorded in by R. Rinehart, McDonnell Douglas Electronics Company, St. Charles, MO to commemorate Gabor's winning of the Nobel Prize that year. History of Hologram. Holography dates from , when British (native of Hungary) scientist Dennis Gabor developed the theory of holography while working to improve the resolution of an electron leslutinsduphoenix.com coined the term Hologram from the Greek words holos, meaning "whole," and gramma, meaning "message".

History of Hologramm. Holography dates from , when British (native of Hungary) scientist Dennis Gabor developed the theory of holography while working to improve the resolution of an electron leslutinsduphoenix.com coined the term Hologram from the Greek words holos, meaning "whole," and gramma, meaning "message".

Holography begins to take its first steps in in a laboratory of an electrical engineering company where Gabor was working on improving the electron microscope. This instrument had increased one hundred times the resolving power of the best optical microscopes and it was very close to solving.

Holography begins to take its first steps in in a laboratory of an electrical engineering company where Gabor was working on improving the electron microscope. This instrument had increased one hundred times the resolving power of the best optical microscopes and it was very close to solving.

Holography dates from , when British (native of Hungary) scientist Dennis Gabor developed the theory of holography while working to improve the resolution of an electron leslutinsduphoenix.com coined the term hologram from the Greek words holos, meaning "whole," and gramma, meaning "message".

History of the holography