If the data set can be modeled by the normal distribution, then statistical tests involving the normal distribution and t distribution such as Z test, t tests, F tests, and Chi-Square tests can performed on the data set. In this article we will describe two normality tests that can be performed with Excel, but are much simpler than the above tests. This method works much better with larger data sets. It is extremely simple to perform in Excel.
With the rich toolset offered by incremental learning, all reading, learning, viewing, archiving, and annotation functions can be delegated to SuperMemo. This goes far beyond standard learning and includes personal notes, home videos, lectures available in audio and video formats, YouTube material, family photo-albums, diaries, audio files, scanned paper materials, etc.
The oldest, most popular, and the most mature component of incremental learning is incremental reading. We will use incremental reading as the comprehensive introduction to other forms of incremental learning.
The value of interruption in learning In incremental learning, we often quickly move from one subject to another. Such interruptions may occur many times during a single learning day.
When people first learn about this incremental methodology they immediately ask "Why interrupt? Aren't these the prime principles of human endeavour to be thorough, persist, and do things right to the end? Previewing is a form of interruption.
Regular interruption allows of prioritizing on the go improving attention: It is true that incremental learning may lead to "learning impatience" and "craving interruption", however, these have never been proven detrimental beyond showing that once you employ incremental learning, you may never want to go back to traditional "book at a time" learning.
Statistic problem solver, you should not forget that schools are incremental too. Just on a slightly moderate scale.
Schools employ interruption when kids move from geography to physics, or when they close the books for the day. Once the art of incremental learning is mastered, the advantages go far beyond the advantages of the interruption or spaced repetition.
Here is a shortlist for a detailed discussion see: Advantages of incremental learning. Contrary to popular belief, incremental learning helps you keep the big picture in your mind better attention by focusing on a single issue at a time without ever missing a detail, and by remedying attention deficits with a constant change of the learning material creativity - by encountering different subjects in unpredictable sequences, your creativity soars.
You can employ it, for example, in the process of incremental problem solving or incremental writing this article was written using incremental writing tools in SuperMemo battling chaos - it is easier to resolve contradictions in SuperMemo, e.
Cohen’s kappa is a measure of the agreement between two raters, where agreement due to chance is factored out. We now extend Cohen’s kappa to the case where the number of raters can be more than two. This extension is called Fleiss’ kappa. As for Cohen’s kappa no weighting is used and the. Statistics definition, the science that deals with the collection, classification, analysis, and interpretation of numerical facts or data, and that, by use of mathematical theories of probability, imposes order and regularity on aggregates of more or less disparate elements. See more. NIM - Equivalency issue with PageLayoutBean with ArcGIS Engine Runtime Service Pack 2. NIM - The layers underneath the basemap layer do not return in the table of contents hit test, instead it returns a null value.
Unlike your memory in "real life" where you keep oscillating between contradictions, SuperMemo does not tolerate information discrepancy.
Contradictory material converges up to a point when you realize you need to decide on the nature of the truth all knowledge is well prioritized all knowledge is easily searchable all knowledge is quantifiable size, retention, workload, etc.
If that sounds too good to be true, please read more below or just give it a solid try. For a detailed explanation see: Interruption is not a problem In learning, choosing the right learning sources is the first step to success. A well-written article will get you to the basic idea from its first paragraph or even a sentence.
Incremental reading is best suited for articles written in hypertext or in an encyclopedic manner. Ideally, each sentence you read has a contribution to your knowledge and is not useless without the sentences that follow.
Imagine that you would like to learn a few things about Gamal Abdel Nasser. You will, for example, import to SuperMemo an article about Nasser from Wikipedia. In the first sentence you will find out that "Gamal Abdel Nasser - was the second President of Egypt". If you are new to Nasser, you may be happy to just know he was the Egyptian president and safely jump to reading other articles.
Thus you may delay the encounter with the historic role of Nasser and economize some time to finding out, for example, who Shimon Peres is. When you see the Nasser article for the second time, you might find that "He was followed by after President Muhammad Naguib and can be considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history".
This piece of knowledge is also self-contained and you can patiently wait for your third encounter with Nasser. When you return the next time, you may conclude that another piece about Nasser is of lower priority: You can schedule the review of that piece in years.Tool to decrypt/encrypt with Caesar.
Caesar cipher (or Caesar code) is a shift cipher, one of the most easy and most famous encryption systems. It uses the substitution of a . This started with a tweet.
I’m embarrassed how often that happens. Frustrated by a sense of global mispriorities, I blurted out some snarky and mildly regrettable tweets on the lack of attention to climate change in the tech industry (Twitter being a sublime medium for the snarky and regrettable).
Climate change is the problem of our time, it’s everyone’s problem, and most of our problem. derided researchers in machine learning who use purely statistical methods to produce behavior that mimics something in the world, but who don't try to understand the meaning of that behavior.
This problem requires us to find the probability that p 1 is less than p 2. This is equivalent to finding the probability that p 1 - p 2 is less than zero.
To find this probability, we need to transform the random variable (p 1 - p 2) into a z-score. That transformation appears below. z p 1-p 2. Data scientists are already very familiar with statistical software like R, SAS, SPSS, MATLAB; however, some of them are relatively inexperienced in parallel leslutinsduphoenix.com, in this post, I will introduce you some basic concepts on the use of parallel computing in R.
Tool to solve puzzle from Wheel of Fortune. Wheel of Fortune is a TV Game Show where candidates have to solve puzzle based on hangman game, by proposing letters.