Marxism is also discussed in Economic thought, article On Socialist Thought; Marxist sociology; Socialism;and in the biography of Marx. Contemporary political and economic aspects are discussed in Communism; Communism, Economic organization of. Also related are Planning, Economic,article on Eastern europe; Workers. For the biographies of other socialist thinkers, see under Socialism.
A brief description of these four types of actions is as follows: This is a rational action which is performed in relation to a goal. For example, action of the engineer, who is building a bridge or army general who wants to win a war?
In such actions an actor clearly knows his goals and selects specific means to attain these goals. However, Weber defines rationality in terms of knowledge of the actor.
This type of action is also rational action but in relation to values, for example, a brave captain goes down with his sinking ship.
His action is rational not because it seeks to attain a definite and external goal; but because to abandon the sinking ship would be regarded as dis-honourable.
This type of action is emotional and is dictated primarily by the state of mind of the actor, for example, the slap which the mother gives her child because of his bad behaviour. In this case, the action is not oriented to a goal What did karl marx contribute to sociology a system of value; rather it is determined by an emotional reaction of the actor in a given set of circumstances.
This type of action is dictated by beliefs and customs which become habitual. In this case, the individual performs the action according to the customs or traditions which have become a part of his personality because of conditioning. According to Weber, the subject matter of sociology is social action, n sociology; an effort has to be made to understand the meanings which an individual attaches to his conduct.
The classification of action into various types by Weber is governed to a certain extent by interpretation of the contemporary period of history. According to him, the major characteristic of the modern world is rationalization, which is expressed in the sphere of Zweck rational actions.
Concept of ideal types: The main concern of Weber was to define generalized categories for the analysis of social phenomena.
He developed the concept of ideal types for such an analysis. According to Weber, there are two types of meaning of an action— a actually existing meaning to a concrete individual action and b a theoretically conceived pure type of subjective meaning.
The second type of meaning is the principle which is known as the ideal type. The ideal type is not merely an abstraction but a specific type of abstraction.
The ideal type presents a pattern which may not exist in reality, but is constructed by the sociologist for comprehending the meaning of social actions. The ideal type is the methodological tool which enables the sociologist to analyze and comprehend the social actions. This ideal type does not describe concrete course of action, but under normal conditions an ideal course of action.
It does not describe an individual course of action but a typical one. Thus ideal type is a generalized concept and by using it, the sociologist can classify a large number of cases in a few categories.
For example, the typology of social action and authority presented by Weber is an ideal type which concentrates attention on extreme or polar types. Weber defines ideal types negatively i.
According to him a it is not a hypothesis in the sense that it is a proposition about concrete reality, which is verifiable, b It is not a description of reality or existing process, c It is not average in the sense what we say that the average man weighs 70 kgs.
According to Weber, it is necessary for the sociologist to construct pure ideal type of actions in order to give precise meaning to them.
He points out that the case is similar to a physical reaction which is carried forward on the assumption of an absolute vacuum. In case of sociology also, the theoretical analysis is possible only in terms of such pure ideal types. According to him, the ideal type serves its methodological function in a better way if it is more and more abstract and unrealistic.
Ideal type is mentally constructed. It is constructed by exaggeration or accentuation of one or more elements or points of view observable in reality. The type thus constructed may be called ideal because it exists only as an ideal.Practical Idea.
In Hegel’s system, the Practical Idea is the penultimate stage of development of the Idea. The Absolute Idea is the unity .
Contribution of Max Weber and Karl Marx towards Sociology! Max Weber. Max Weber was born in in Germany. In the beginning, he studied law. Later, he shifted to the study of social sciences. Comments: Matthew Woessner's studies on the disproportionately low number of political conservatives in academia are well-done and quite interesting.
Marxist SociologyMarx’s contributions Marx’s influence in the nineteenth century Divergence of Marxism and sociology Marxist influence since the s Defining Marxist sociology [5. Feb 27, · His contribution is in many core areas of sociology such as political sociology,economic sociology, methodology, sociological theories as well as sociological thought.
Beyond this, Marxist/Marxism itself as a perspective has a different angle/dimension to look at . One of the foundational thinkers of sociology was Karl Marx, a 19th-century German philosopher. Marx was focused on the relationship between workers and the economy and began to study society.